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The Great Indian History and Culture recorded as long as 75,000 years ago old

The kingdom of Magadha, ruled by Bimbisara, is the most powerful state in India. The Indian epic the Ramayana is composed by the sage Valmiki. The life of Siddhartha Gautama according to modern scholar consensus. Life of Indian Emperor Chandragupta, the first ruler of the Mauryan Empire.

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Indian Map
            Indian Map
  • The Moguls were Muslims who ruled over a Hindu majority. Akbar maintained his rule by his religious tolerance and Mogul military might, much like the British later. But after his death, the empire began to decline. This decline continued with the rule of Aurangzeb (1658-1707), who became emperor in 1658.
  • Evidence of anatomically modern humans in the Indian subcontinent is recorded as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago.
  • The history of the British Raj refers to the period of British rule on the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The system of governance was instituted in 1858 when the rule of the East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria (who in 1876 was proclaimed Empress of India).
  • The English went to India to trade and rule, but not to settle, an attitude which increased the distance between the rulers and the ruled. By modern standards, British rule in India lasted a long time: nearly 200 years. The endurance of British rule was remarkable given the physical size of the country.

Indian Culture:

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India’s languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food, and customs differ from place to place within the country. The Indian culture, often labeled as an amalgamation of several cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced by a history that is several millennia old.

    1. In 2012, the Indian government stated 22% of its population is below its official poverty limit. The World Bank, in 2011 based on 2005’s PPPs International Comparison Program, estimated 23.6% of Indian population, or about 276 million people and lived below $1.25 per day on purchasing everyday consumables.
    2. In India is characterized by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. The Indian subcontinent is the birthplace of four of the world’s major religions; namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. Throughout India’s history, religion has been an important part of the country’s culture.
    3. The diversity in India is unique. Being a large country with a large population. India presents endless varieties of physical features and cultural patterns. It is the land of many languages it is only in India people professes all the major religions of the world.

Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical science artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations.

Developing Country:   India has been ranked among the 10 wealthiest countries globally with the total individual wealth of $5,200 billion, but this is largely owing to its large population, a report said, adding that on a per capita basis, the average Indian is “quite poor”. … Moreover, India has overtaken Italy this past year.

 Religions Mainly Exist In India are Nine (9)

Religions of india
                Religions in India
    • India is home to at least nine(9) recognized religions.  The major religions practiced in India are Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Zoroastrianism, Judaism and the Baha’i Faith are also practiced in India.
    • Within Hinduism, a large number of personal gods (Ishvaras) are worshipped as murtis. These are either aspects of the Supreme Brahman, Avatars of the supreme being, or significantly powerful entities known as Devas/Devi’s.
    • Hinduism is one of the world’s oldest religions. Hinduism is more than said to be a religion. It is a culture, a way of life, and a code of behavior. This is reflected in a term Indians use to describe the Hindu religion: Sanatana Dharma, which means eternal faith, or the eternal way things are (truth). According to Hinduism, the earth is 155.5 trillion years old, but according to science, it is 4.5 billion years old. As a Hindu, Sha. Which is the world’s oldest religion? Types of cultures. Organizational culture – the behavior of humans within an organization and the meaning that people attach to those behaviors.
    • An organization’s culture includes its vision, values, norms, systems, countries, symbols, language, assumptions, beliefs, and habits. Religions like Islam, Christianity, and Buddhism adapted belief of a messenger of God or a prophet Hindus believe that Hinduism is more of a way of life than a structured religion.
    • Hinduism has primarily stayed within Indians and wasn’t-spread like larger religions from a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India, the term Dharma is preferred, which is broader than the western term religion. Hindu traditionalists prefer to call it Sanatana Dharma (the eternal or ancient dharma). Indian scholars codify and reinterpret Aryan beliefs to create the Upanishads texts forming the basis of Hinduism. The Bhagavad Gita, part of the Mahabharata, is written at some point between 400 BCE and 200 CE. The Gupta-era Hindu temple at Bhitargaon is built

The culture of India – Wikipedia

The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all … Most of the great temples in North India were destroyed during the Muslim rule. “Mohammedan Conquest … Throughout the history of IndiaIndian culture has been heavily influenced by Dharmic religions. They have been credited …

The History of Hindu India, Part One: From Ancient Times – YouTube

Part Two: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j0kLX2aPgo8&list=PLkA3jcdbA5kTwKf5gHchrJliKCMTM__7B …

Cultural Heritage:

  • This is an expression of the ways of living developed by a community and passed on from generation to generation, including customs, practices, places, objects, artistic expressions, and values. Cultural Heritage is often expressed as either Intangible or Tangible Cultural Heritage.rritorial constituency seats

Largest Democracy in India:-

Indian Leaders and party symbols
                Indian Leaders and party symbols
  • India is the largest democracy in the world. India has the biggest number of people with franchise rights and the largest number of political parties, which take part in the election campaign. In the 1996 national elections, almost 600 million people voted and an average of 26 candidates competed for each of the 543 te
  • Elections are held at different levels. The two major election levels are at national level, after which the national government is established and at the state level after which the state government is established. Elections are also held for city, town and village councils.
  • There are different political issues in Indian politics. Some are national level and some regional level. Some communities just demand more economic and social rights for their communities. While others demand more autonomy for their cultures within the Indian states. Some demanded autonomous states within the Indian Union, while the others demanded to be independent of India.
  • With all its problems India survives as a single state with democratic character. But a number of political problems still exist and remain unsolved in India.
  • India is a democracy. Before its independence, its future leaders chose the liberal democratic system as the administration system of India. On 26/01/1950, India declared itself a Republic. On this day the Constitution of India came into force. Today India is a federation of 28 states and 7 union territories and formally this federation is known as a Union.
  • Nominally the head of the country is the President in whom all executive powers are vested, but the real administrator of the country is the Prime Minister. After the national elections are held the President calls the most suitable candidate to form a government, known as the central government. Normally this candidate is the head of the largest party in the parliament. In case the government resigns because of any reason, the President can call the other candidate to form the government. The President can also declare, according to government advice, on new elections and if necessary an emergency state. The President has the right to be updated about crucial government matters and other rights like giving amnesty to prisoners etc. According to the Constitution, elections are to be held once in every five years, unless the parliament dissolves earlier or on the other hand, the emergency is declared and in such a case Parliament can continue another year.

The Indian Parliament consists of two houses. The Lower House called the Lok Sabha and the Upper House called the Rajya Sabha. In the national elections, candidates are chosen for the Lower House. The candidates are elected in territorial constituencies. There are 543 territorial constituencies. Two members of the Anglo-Indian community are nominated to the Lower House by the President. The law, which obliges Government office to reserve 15% from the Scheduled Castes and 7% from the Scheduled Tribes, also exists in the Parliament. At least 22% of the Indian Parliament members belong to these two communities (see a Caste system in modern India). In the past few years, there is an attempt to oblige a law to allow about 33% women as Parliament members.

  • Upper House, Rajya Sabha, consists of up to 250 members. Of these members, 230 are elected by state legislatures and about 15 are nominated by the President. Unlike the Lower House, the Upper House cannot be dissolved, but one-third of its members resign every two years.
  • Most of the parliamentary activities, passing laws, no-confidence votes, budget bills, take place in the Lower House. The Upper House together with the Lower House amends the Constitution. These two Houses together with the state legislatures also elect the President.
  • The states have their own legislatures. Some states have two Houses and some only one House. The Lower House where most of the legislature activities happen is called the Vidhan Sabha. The state elections are held every five years unless the state government is dissolved earlier. In these elections, members of the Lower House are elected.
symbols in election.jpg
Party symbols in India
  • Head of a state is called Chief Minister, who is a member of the Lower House. Constitutionally the figurehead of the state is the Governor, who is appointed by the President according to the advice of the national government. After the state elections, the governor calls for the suitable candidate to form the government. In general, the governor has more legislative rights at the state level than the President has at the national level. The governor can call for early elections in the state, or fire the government if he thinks that the government has failed or is unstable.
  • In the federal relations between the state and central government, the central government has more authority on state matters than the state government. For example, the central government has the right to redistribute the state borders without consulting the state governments on this matter. If the political conditions in any state are not stable, the national government can call on the President to declare President’s rule in that specific state. And so the government in that state is dissolved, which means an emergency rule is declared and sometimes if necessary the army is put to work in that state.
  • Even though the Constitution determinates the rights of the different authorities in the administration process, there can be other pressures like strong lobbies or strong political parties, which, sometimes determinate the real administration process. Sometimes the authority implemented by the President is questioned by the government or by political parties as a deviation from his constitutional rights as the nominal head of the Union.

National parties are political parties which participate in different elections held all over India.

Some of the national parties have their origin even before India’s independence.The oldest national party in India is the Indian National Congress (INC). In was established in 1885 as a pro-British Indian organization. Later on, it became the main voice of India’s freedom struggle. After India’s independence, the British passed the administration of India to the leaders of the Indian National Congress.

  Indian Voters
Indian Voters
    • Until 1966 the Congress was a stable party. Indira Gandhi became the leader of the Congress and Prime Minister of India. From this period the Congress lost its stability. Some of the veteran members of the Congress did not accept her leadership and they tried to dispose of her. In 1969 the Congress split and her opponents established a new Congress part. But still, INC was the largest and ruling party of India.
  • Big on Hosting. Unlimited Space & Unlimited BandwidthIndira Gandhi’s Congress lost the 1977 elections to the Janata Party. A few months after the defeat, another split happened in the Congress party. The party of Indira Gandhi was called Congress, the initial denoting of her name. During this period many more splits and coalitions occurred within the different Congress parties. Some of these new party members including its founders returned later on to the Congress party and the party was renamed Indian National Congress.
  • But there are others who left the INC at different periods and established parties outside the fold of Congress and have a name Congress in their party name. Before the 1999 elections, some senior members of the INC were forced to resign because they questioned the leadership of Sonia Gandhi. These people have created the National Congress Party to participate in 1999 elections.
  • The INC is in the Indian political arena prior to India’s independence. There were other parties, which were established after independence, and, for some period, were challenging the continuous rule of the Congress, some of them almost vanished from the political arena.
  • The first political party which, was seen as challenging the Congress continuous rule was the Swatantra Party. It was established in 1959 and was supported by some big businessmen. It opposed the socialist policy of the Congress It had members in the Lok Sabha until 1977. Another party, which challenged the Congress party but later on almost vanished from the political arena, was Janata Party. Janata Party was the first political party in India to establish a non-Congress government when it won the 1977 elections.
  • Janata Party was established before the 1977 elections. The person responsible for the formation of Janata Party was Jayaprakash Narayan, called in short JP. JP was a freedom fighter and a social activist. Many in India respected him and saw in him a moral figure.
  • In the early 1970s, the reign of Indira Gandhi began to show signs of corruption and dictatorship and there was a general feeling that liberal democracy is coming to an end. JP openly attacked Indira Gandhi’s policy and asked other leaders to express their views about the dangers. Between 1975-77 emergency rule was declared. During this period many of Gandhi’s political rivals were arrested and put behind the bars. Censorship was enforced on Indian press. The justice system was restricted and turned into ‘puppet show’ of the government. The people also suffered a lot from this emergency rule. Under the birth control policy, many people were forced to have sterilization. Even so, Indira Gandhi was sure that the Indian people would support her because her general intention was to make India a better place and so she declared elections in 1977.
  • To prevent her victory different political parties organized as one party. This party was called Janata Party. The main factions of this party were, Congress (O), Lok Dal, Jan Sangh, and other parties. This party won the 1977 elections and Morarji Desai became the Prime Minister of India. But this party as it was formed did not survive for a long time. This party which was actually a group of factions with one desire to defeat Indira Gandhi did not find anything common among its members after they defeated Gandhi. As long as JP was alive, the different factions still stayed together. But after his death in 1978 a clear split occurred in the Janata Party between Morarji Desai’s supporters and Charan Singh’s supporters. In 1979 Morarji Desai resigned as Prime Minister and other members tried to replace Prime Minister. During this period Jagjivan Ram, an untouchable according to strict Hindu society, was very near to become a Prime Minister. But finally, Charan Singh of the Lok Dal faction was proclaimed the new Prime Minister. A few weeks after Charan Singh became the Prime Minister, because of the instability in the coalition, the president declared on new elections.
  • 1980 new national elections took place in which Indira Gandhi’s Congress again won the elections. Later on, after these elections, different factions of the Janata Party broke up from the Janata Party and established their own parties. Among these parties was Jan Sangh which later on was renamed Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP). Janata Party continues to survive but is very small. In the 1996 elections, it did not win any seat in the national elections and in the 1998 elections, it won only one seat.
  • Another political party which, was actually a political bloc of different factions and managed to form a government was Janata Dal. This party was established because of the claim that there was corruption in the Congress government. In 1984 Rajiv Gandhi formed the Congress government. The finance minister of his government was VP Singh. VP Singh found out that a Swedish company, Bofors, was bribing some senior members of the Congress. Singh tried to investigate this affair. Gandhi moved him from the office and made him Defence Minister, but Singh resigned from the government and started a new party called Janata Dal. This party was made up of former Janata Party, Lok Dal and some INC members. In the 1989 elections, this party came second after INC but it managed to establish a coalition government with other parties. This coalition was called the National Front. This front also broke up after two years.
  • Between 1996 and 2004 the largest party was the Bhartiya Janata Party. The BJP began its political career after India’s independence with only three members in the first elections held in 1952. The BJP is a Hindu nationalist party, which draws its inspiration from Hinduism. This party sees in India a Hindu state and it emphasizes Hindu pride and Hindu past of India.
  • This party was established after India’s independence, but its origin is also pre-independence. In the 19th century a Hindu nationalist organization, Arya Samaj, was established. The ideas of this organization influenced another Hindu organization established later in British India, the Hindu Mahasabha. Hindu Mahasabha opposed the secular Congress philosophy and wanted to establish a Hindu state in British India. Another Hindu organization in British India was Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), meaning national volunteers organization.
  • One person who belonged in different stages of his life to these two organizations assassinated Mahatma Gandhi in 1948. After his assassination, these two organizations were outlawed for some time. The leader of the Hindu Mahasabha, Shyam Mookherji resigned from the party and established with the members of RSS a new Hindu nationalist party, which was named Jana Sangh. This party had moderate ideas than its former components. In its first two decades, the party’s major holes were in north India’s Hindi speaking regions, because this party supported turning Hindi into the national language of India (see Official Language of India). In 1977 this party was an important faction of the Janata Party. In the 1980s it broke from the Janata Party and changed its name to Bhartiya Jana Sangh. Later on, it renamed itself as Bhartiya Janata Party.
 Iamgreatindian  Young leaders
                           Iamgreatindian  Young leaders

There are also other national parties, which were established in India. The Bahujan Samaj Party was established in the 1980s. But even though this party is a national party, it represents only the oppressed classes of India. Samajwadi Party was established in 1992. Two communist parties, Communist Party of India (CPI) and Communist Party of India- Marxist (CPM) are also national parties. There are some parties who have national agendas but participate only in certain regions of India and not all over India. For example Forward Bloc  Subhas Chandra Bose which participates in elections only in West Bengal and neighboring Bihar.  because of the great Indian History, I would proudly say that Iamgreatindian.

 

See these video URLs…

Pebbles present History of India in English for kids. The most important events in Indian History for children …

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Entire History of India for Beginners through story-telling – YouTube

You can watch the whole courses on Unacademy.com here:- https://unacademy.com/lesson/india-an …

India History – YouTube

This is the great History of India from 3000 BC to 20th century. The video is about the greatest kings ..

Real Ancient India – Rare Photos – Indian History – YouTube

Here are some rare Indian pictures that’ll change the way you look at Indian historyIndian History’s …

Top 20 Indian Kings in Indian History – YouTube

The greatest Kings in Indian History. … The greatest king of ancient India was emperor Chandra Gupta Maurya …

A rise of Indian Nationalism | History of India in English | Indian History …

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Pebbles present History of India in English for kids. The most important events in Indian History for children …

Alexander and Porus | History of India in English | Indian History …

Pebbles present History of India in English for kids. The most important events in Indian History for children …

Indian Freedom Struggle | Pre Independence History of India – YouTube

http://mocomi.com/ presents: Indian Freedom Struggle Indians tried every way possible, violent and non …

History of India in English | Indian History | History of India … – YouTube

Pebbles present History of India in English for kids. The most important events in Indian History for children…

The Rajputs | History of India in English | Indian History | History of …

Pebbles present History of India in English for kids. The most important events in Indian History for children …

Top 10 Beautiful And Powerful Women Of Indian History – YouTube

Top 10 Powerful & Beautiful Women of Indian History Meera Bai Jodha Rajiya Sultan Hadi Ranisanyogita …

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